The book presents an interdisciplinary analysis of factors determining development competence of local communities in five selected regions of Poland. The factors analyzed here are: economic growth indicators, human capital and its quality and institutional background - aspirations, trust and social capital. The articles included in the book are an interesting contribution to the discussion on Poland‘s development prospects, underlining the crucial role of social capital in the process of socio-economic development. The 2009 COMPETE Survey interviews with respondents from five small communities in Poland have been used in the research. The project was financed by the EEA and Norway Grants and the Minis-try of Science and Higher Education in Poland.